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Spelling and Alphabet
Nouns and Word Order
Pre- and Suffixes
Orders (imperative)
Basic words
Flexible grammar
Open Slovio Project = you can participate
Verbs, general
ES (to be)
IDIT (to go)
IMAT (to have)
MOZX (can)
HOTIT (want)
HCE (want)
DOLZX (have to)
DOLZXBI (should)
While, during
Accent and pronunciation
Flexible grammar

TEXTS. Sample Slovio texts.

Profesor, ucxijt Slovio.The vocabulary of Slovio is based on that of the largest European language group, and includes many internationally known words from Latin, Greek, English, French, German, Spanish etc. Because Slovio is based mainly on the mutually intelligible Slavic languages, as soon as one learns Slovio it should be possible to communicate with over 400 million people around the world. Not only in such countries as Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia, Slovenia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Moldova, Serbia but also in many other countries. The flexibility and the richness of the Slavic languages lies in their ability to form new words with prefixes and sufixes. This ability of the Slavic languages had been copied by Esperanto and by most other planned languages. Naturally, Slovio has this ability too.
Universal slavic language: flexible grammar and spelling
Words of particular types are in most cases indicated by their endings (suffixes), and this makes it easy to see the structure of sentences. The root of each word is never varied. Most words have special endings, other words (nouns, some verb forms, prepositions, conjunctions and some adverbs) do not have any special endings.

online dictionary / Slovio - Angloio Slovknig  Open Slovio Project = you can participate

Advice to Slovio Translators


Explanation: the vowels or consonants in parentheses are optional and are used only to facilitate pronunciation. Their use (or not use) depends on the root to which they are attached. Generally, the optional vowels/consonants are used in such a way so we wouldn't have two vowels or two consonants following each other. Example: if the root ends with a consonant, then a consonant at the beginning of a suffix can be omitted; if the root ends with a vowel, then a vowel at the beginning of a suffix can be omitted. The most frequently used optional vowels and consonants are:  "i", "e" and "n".


Slovio has a loose and flexible syntax typical of Slavic languages. The very specific adjective, verb and adverb endings make it possible to rearrange words in many different configurations, and still keep the clarity of meaning; one can even use the various rigid syntaxes typical of germanic, romance or chinese languages. The following simple rules of grammar are all you need for an exact and complete communication.
Nouns: don't have any special endings, don't have any declensions, have always the same form. Exceptions: 1) singular-plural, 2) subject-object, 3) direction.
-(i)s.= PLURAL. Plural nouns ending in a vowel are formed by adding -s. Plural nouns ending in a consonant are formed by adding -is. Examples: okno (window), oknos (windows); dom (house), domis (houses). (Only nouns have a plural form. Adjectives don't have any. Adjectives don't change their form.)  In Slovio nouns plural is optional, and plural ending can be left out where it is clear from the context that we are dealing with more than one subject/object.
Word order: The adjectives usually come before the noun, but can come also after the noun. Unlike in English, the adjectives have to have the adjective ending -ju. "Dobrju mlodic". or "Mlodic dobrju."
Subject-Object: Normally the subject comes before the object. If we want to reverse the order we must denote the object with suffix "-(u)f" which is added to the object in cases where it is necessary to make it clear which noun is the subject. "Mlodic lubil mlodica." (Boy loved a girl). Or:  "Mlodicaf lubil mlodic." Both sentences have the same meaning, only the subject/object order is reversed. As shown here, to make the meaning clear, in the second case we use the ending -(u)f. In the plural, the ending -(u)f becomes -(i)fs. If the word order is "normal" (subject before object) then no changes, no suffixes are necessary. If an object is preceded by a preposition, then we don't have to change the ending of the word, regardless of its posi
tion in the sentence. In fact after a preposition the object must not change its ending, regardless of its location in the sentence. Exception: when we want to indicate direction. New: Flexible grammar

Direction: The endings -(u)f, -(i)fs described above are also used to indicate direction. The direction-ending is added to the nouns regardless of the noun's position in a sentence and even if the noun is preceded by a preposition.
Examples: Peter sidijt na stul. (Peter is sitting on a chair.)
Peter sidijt na stuluf. (Peter is sitting down on a chair.) (Direction)
Peter idijt v sxkol. (Peter is walking inside school.)
Peter idijt v sxkoluf. (Peter is walking towards school.) (Direction.)
Peter idijt na gora. (Peter is walking on a mountain.)
Peter idijt na goraf. (Peter is going onto a mountain.) (Direction)
Peter sberijt gribis v les. (Peter is picking mushrooms in a forest.)
Peter bu idit sberit gribis v lesuf. (Peter will go to pick mushrooms into a forest.) (direction)
New: Flexible grammar

Genitive: The above described endings -(u)f, -(i)fs have been also used by Slovio speakers to express genitive. As far as we know this does not create any problems and ads clarity to the language. As far as we know similar usage exists also in Ido and Esperanto and it also does not create any problems. Your commnents and suggestions are welcome.


Click HERE (opens up in a separate window)


-ju   = ADJECTIVES. Examples: dobrju = good; velju = big;  silaju = strong. As in English, adjectives do not change their form. They may be placed either before (as is usual in English) or after (as is usual in Spanish) the noun which they qualify. For example, zelenju trava (green grass) or trava zelenju, velju dom (big house) or dom velju. Adjectives don't have a plural form and are gender neutral. Important notice: in words ending with -ia, -ie the ending -ju is not added to -ia / -ie but it replaces -ia/-ie. Examples: galaktia (galaxy), galaktju (galactic); morie (sea), morju (marine).
(Question: Why does slovio have such a strange ending "-ju" for adjectives? Does it really exist in Slavic languages? Yes it exists in the feminine accusative. Since Slovio doesn't have any accusative, nor makes any distinction between feminine or masculine forms, the ending "-ju" is appropriate. In the early versions of slovio we had used the ending "-ja" but that created too many conflicts and too much confusion with other words.
online dictionary / Slovio - Angloio Slovknig-(e)sk This is the second possible way of forming adjectives. This -sk form is useful  (but not absolutely necessary) to form adjectives (or adverbs) from such roots where the addition of -ju would be somewhat clumsy or difficult to pronounce.
-ju = -(e)sk. There is no difference in the meaning between these 2 endings. It's up to the speaker which one where he prefers. However: the -(e)sk ending can denote also an adverb, and you should use it only in those cases where it won't make the meaning unclear or cause confusion. The advantage of using -(e)sk ending is that the same ending can be used to form both adjectives and adverbs.
-just = SLIGHTLY. -ju + st. (Equivalent to English -ish.) Examples: zxolt-ju (yellow), zxolt-just (yellowish, slightly yellow). (Another althernative is to use the prepositions "mal-" or "slab-" to express more or less the same thing. For example "slab-belju" = whitish.)
-(i)mozxju / -(i)mozxost / -(i)mozxuo = POSSIBILITY. The ending  signifies possibility or ability to make something. Similar to English "-able". Example: vidit (see), vidimozxju (visible), vidimozxost (visibility).
-(i)m- / -(i)mju / -(i)most /-(i)muo = POSSIBILITY. (same as above but shorter) The ending  signifies possibility or ability to make something. Similar to English "-able". Example: vidit (see), vidimju (visible), vidimost (visibility), vidimuo (visibly); mozg-cxistit (brainwash), mozg-cxistimju (brainwashable).
.-(i)nuzxju / -(i)nuzxost / -(i)nuzxuo= NECESSITY. The ending  signifies necessity to make something. Similar to English "needs to be". Example: vidit (see), vidinuzxju (which needs to be seen); vidinuzxost (need to see something) .
-(i)dolzxju / -(i)dolzxost / -(i)dolzxuo = OBLIGATION. The ending  signifies obligation to make something. Similar to English "must be". Example: vidit (see), vididolxju (which must be seen), vididolzxost (obligation to see something); .  TOP

-uo = ADVERBS. Adverbs are formed by adding -uo: dobruo = well; bistruo = quickly. Just as with the adjectives, comparatives and superlatives are made using the words plus, bolsx, mensx, maks and min. dobruo = well, plus dobruo = better, etc...
-(e)sk This is the second possible way of forming adverbs. There is no difference in the meaning between the 2 endings -uo and -(e)sk. However: the -(e)sk ending is less exact because it can be also used to create adjectives and you should use it only in those cases where it won't make the meaning unclear or cause confusion. The advantage of using -(e)sk ending is that the same ending can be used both for adjectives and adverbs. This helps those who have problems with the grammar.

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES: Comparative and superlative adjectives are made using the words plus, bolsx, mensx, maks and min. For example:
plus or bolsx or -jusx = MORE. Examples: plus velju = bolsx velju = veljusx = bigger; plus mlodju = bolsx mlodju = mlodjusx =  younger; "Ti es krasjusx cxem ja." = you are more beautiful than I.
minus or mensx = LESS. Examples: mensx velju = minus velju = less big;
maks or nai- = THE-MOST. Another alternative to use instead of "maks" is the preposition "nai-" Examples: maks velju = naivelju = the biggest; maks mlodju = naimlodju = the youngest; Naikrasju mlodica. (The most beautiful girl.)
min or naimensx = THE-LEAST. Examples: min velju = naimensx velju = the smallest; min mlodju = naimensx mlodju = the least young;
More examples: mlodju = young, plus mlodju = younger, maks mlodju = the youngest. Opposites are formed with preposition bez-: dobrju = good, bezdobrju = bad, opasju = dangerous, bezopasju = safe.

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADVERBS: Comparative and superlative adverbs are made using the words plus, bolsx, mensx, maks and min. For example:
plus or bolsx or -ue = MORE. Examples: plus bistruo = bolsx bistruo = bistrue = quicker; plus dobruo = bolsx dobruo = dobrue =  better;
minus or mensx = LESS. Examples: mensx bistuo = minus bistruo = slower;
maks or nai- = THE-MOST. Another alternative to use instead of "maks" is the preposition "nai-" Examples: maks bistruo = naibistruo = most quickly; maks dobruo = naidobruo = best.
min or naimensx = THE-LEAST. Examples: min velju = naimensx velju = the smallest; min mlodju = naimensx mlodju = the least young;
Opposites are formed with preposition bez-: opasuo = dangerously, bezopasuo = safely.
More examples: dobruo = well; dobrue = plus dobruo = bolsx dobruo = better; maks dobruo = naidobruo = best; minus dobruo = mensx dobruo = less well; min dobruo = naimensx dobruo = least well.


The Slovio roots can have various endings. The Slovio basic verb-form is formed by adding one of the following: -vit, -it, -t, to the root. Which one of the three ending is added depends on the root. If the root ends with vowel "o" then we add "-vit". It the root ends with a consonant, then we add -it. If the root ends with vowels "a, e, i, u," then we add only -t. In order to bring more clarity into our communication it may help to add "-vit" also in those cases where it is not required.

The neutral verb-form, explained above, is the basic form. From this form are derived all the other forms, simply by replacing the "-t" with the other alternate endings. The future, present, the past and the conditional tenses can be formed with the use of help words: BU (will do/ will be), ES (does/ is), BIL (did/ has done/ was), BI (would have done, would have been), or by the replacement of the -t of the neutral form with -b (future), -l (past), -lbi (conditional).  The imperative form is created by replacing the -t  with   -j. More details and other possibilities are shown with the examples. All the verbs follow the example of IDIT (to go). Exceptions are only these verbs:  ES (to be),   MOZX (can), HCE (want), DOLZX (have to)DOLZXBI (should). The other varianf of "want" has more or less normal conjugation: HOTIT (want)

Why are there up to 3 different ways one can use the verbs? This is to give the language more flexibility and the ability to absorb and use any words from any language without any change. For example if we have an english verb "to extrapolate" and don't know how to translate it, we could use it in Slovio as: "ja bu extrapolate, ja es extrapolate, ja bil extrapolate, etc." Let's not forget that in other languages there are many more verb forms. And in such planed languages as Esperanto or Ido we cannot use unaltered foreign verbs; first we have to alter them and add to them appropriate suffixes, and only then can they be used. Slovio can use unaltered "foreign" words. Even the spelling can remain original. The use of cx, sx, zx, gx, wx in Slovio words doesn't create any conflicts with foreign words because these letter combinations are practically non-existent in other languages.

-va- = DURATION, REPETITION. (In the past as English "used to"). To denote an activity of long duration or one that repeats itself we insert -va- before the -t of the neutral form. Examples:  ja cxudovil (I wondered), ja cxudovival (I used to wonder).
-(e)nie, -ie, -(a)cia  = ACTION, ACTIVITY. (Noun-creation.) Root+(e)nie or neutral +ie These suffixes mean activity or action. Similar to english suffix "-ment". This is how we can derive nouns from verbs. Examples: vid-it (to see), videnie or viditie (seeing, vision);  razv-it (to develop), razvitie or razvenie (development),
-ba = same as above. Examples: sluzx-it (to serve), sluzx-ba (service).

Verb Aspect: the verb aspects (perfective, imperfective...) can be expressed in Slovio using the above mentioned suffix -va- (duration, repetition) and the prefix zu- (completion). This can be done in all the tenses.      TOP

ADJECTIVE PARTICIPLES  are formed in the following way.
-bsju, -tsju, -lsju = active adjective participles
-bju, -tju, -lju = passive adjective participles

-bsju = ACTIVE FUTURE PARTICIPLE. Add -sju to the -b of the future tense. (Rarely used in Slavic languages, but possible.)
-tsju = ACTIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Add -sju to the -t of the neutral form. Examples:   igrat (to play), igratsju (playing)
-lsju = ACTIVE PAST PARTICIPLE.. Add -sju to the -l of the past tense.
-bju = PASSIVE FUTURE PARTICIPLE.  Add -ju to the -b of the future tense.
-tju = PASSIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE.  Add -ju to the -t of the neutral form. Examples:  igrat (to play), igratju (being played)
-lju = PASSIVE PAST PARTICIPLE.  Add -ju to the -l of the past tense. Examples:  delat (to make), delalju (made). MORE EXAMPLES
= TO CHANGE SOMETHING (from outside)  Verb formed from an adjective: -ju+vit. Examples:  dobrju (good), dobrjuvit (make better, improve); velju (big), veljuvit (to enlarge, make bigger).
= TO CHANGE ITSELF (form inside) Verb formed from an adjective: -ju+vsit. Examples:  dobrju (good), dobrjuvsit (become better, improve itself); velju (big), veljuvsit (to grow up, to become bigger).

  are formed in the following way.
-bsuo, -tsuo, -lsuo = active adverbial participles
-buo, -tuo, -luo = passive adverbial participles
example (active):

Cxistibsuo on slusxal muzik. - Preparing to clean, he listened to music.
Cxistitsuo on slusxal muzik. - While cleaning, he listened to music.
Cxistilsuo on slusxal muzik. - Having cleaned, he listened to music.
example (passive):
Cxistibuo on slusxal muzik. - Preparing to be cleaned, he listened to music.
Cxistituo on slusxal muzik. - While being cleaned, he listened to music.
Cxistiluo on slusxal muzik. - Having been cleaned, he listened to music.)
Please read: 
Advice to Slovio Translators
(Old, before January 2009:
= WHILE DOING . (present) (Replace the -t of the neutral form with -ts). (Similar to one form of English -ing.) For example: Divats krasju zxen, on kupil kvetis. (While watching a beautiful woman, he bought flowers.); Upotrebits letidlo pridime dnes. (Using airplane we will come today.); Upotrebits voz pridime zavtra. (Using car we will come tomorrow.) MORE EXAMPLES
-ls = HAVING DONE. (past) (Replace the -t of the neutral form with -ls). For example: Vidils krasju zxen, on kupil kvetis. (Having seen a beautiful woman, he bought flowers.)
-bs = PREPARING TO DO. (future) (Replace the -t of the neutral form with -bs).
More examples:
Cxitabs knig on pitil voda. - Preparing to read a book, he drank water.
Cxitats knig on pitil voda. - While reading a book, he drank water.
Cxitals knig on pitil voda. - Having read a book, he drank water. MORE EXAMPLES

Other Prefixes and Suffixes:

The words (nouns) as such have no gender. They are all gender-neutral. Also the majority of words denoting living beings, animals, plants etc are gender-neutral. If we want to be specific that a certain living thing is of a male sex or of a female sex, or that it is a young offspring we use the endings: -ic / -nic (male), -ica / -nica (female), -incxa / -nincxa (young, offspring).
-(n)ic  = MALE.
-(n)incxa = OFFSPRING, YOUNG.
Examples: kot (cat, a general gender-free term), kot-ic (tom-cat), kot-ica (female cat), kot-incxa (kitten); lud (human, person), lud-ic (man), lud-ica (woman), lud-incxa (child), lud-is (people), lud-stvo (humanity).  TOP

online dictionary / Slovio - Angloio SlovknigQUALITY.
bez- = OPPOSITE. Denotes the direct opposite. Examples: dobrju (good), bezdobrju (bad).

= LACK OF QUALITY. This is somewhat less strong, less negative than bez-. Examples: dobrju (good), nedobrju (not good).
= REMOTE. (English: grand-grand-...) Denotes something very old (or very young) or a distant ancestor, distant age, distant descendant. Examples: otec (father), pra-otec (distant grandfather);
= BAD; defect, mean. (English mis-). Examples: upotrebit (use), zlo-upotrebit (misuse).
pred- = BEFORE. Example:
pseudo- = FALSE. Example:
= BIG. Examples. grod (town), vel-grod (city). Velkrasju mlodica. (Very beautiful girl.)
mal- = SMALL. Examples: grod (town), mal-grod (village).
pol- = HALF. Semi, demi, mid-. Examples: pol-den (noon), pol-nocx (midnight).
= ABOVE, SUPERIOR, OVER-. Examples: nad-velju (over-sized), nad-razumju (of superior wisdom).
pod- = VICE, UNDER. Denotes deputy, vice or a lower function. Examples: prezident (president), pod-prezident (vice president). It can also denote describe something that is lower. For example: .......
proti- = ANTI. Opposite or opposition to something else. Examples: proti-virus (anti-virus).
slab- = A BIT, WEAK. To do something only a bit; to be a bit like something. Examples: belju (white), slabbelju (whitish); otkrit (open), slabotkrit (open a bit).
mnog- = MULTI-.  Examples: cvet (color), mnog-cvet-ju (multicolored), narod (nation), mnog-narod-ju (multi-national).
din- = UNI-.  Examples: cvet (color), din-cvet-ju (one colored).
= INTER-. Examples: mezxu-narod-ju (international); mezxu-kontinent-ju (intercontinental).
= WITH, TOGETHER. (similar to English co-, con-). Examples: robit (work), so-robit (cooperate); vrem (time), so-vrem-ju (contemporary), so-vrem-uo (at the same time). Din (one), so-din (union), so-dinit (to unify, join), so-dinie (unification), so-viazat (tie together).
samo- = AUTO-. Denotes an automatic device or machine. Examples: samo-let (airplane); samo-ogen (lighter), samo-var (water cooker).

-iv,  -ivo,  -vo = MATERIAL. To denote a thing originating from certain material or used for a certain purpouse. Example 1: topl-ju (warm), topl-it (to heat), topl-ivo (heating fuel), plat-it (to pay), plat-ivo (currency), pal-it (to burn), pal-ivo (fuel). Example2 : drev (tree), drev-ivo (wood), goviad (cattle), goviad-ivo (beef), svin (swine, pig), svin-ivo (pork), kurk (chicken), kurk-ivo (chicken meat).
-ie = THING (usually from adjective).  Examples: sxastju (happy), scxastie (happiness).
= THING (from verb).  Simply replace the -t of the neutral verb form with -lka. Examples: igrat (to play), igralka (toy).
= THING (usu from verb). Simply replace the -t of the neutral verb form with -lo. The suffix -lo means a thing used (passively) for a specific purpose. Examples: umivat (to wash), umivalo (sink).
-(i)dlo = TOOL (usu from verb).  The suffix -(i)dlo means a tool used (actively) for a specific purpose. Examples: let-it (to fly), let-idlo (airplane).
-k, -(n)ak
, -(n)ek, -(n)ok, -(n)ov  = THING .  Examples: pit-it (to drink), pit-ok (a drink).
  = THING .  This ending is used as a replacement for those traditional Slavic words which use the ending -nik to desigate inanimate objects. In Slovio we use the ending -nik solely to designate persons.  Examples:  cxai-nek (tea pot),
-(i)tor  = MOTORIZED MECHANICAL DEVICE.  This ending is used to denote motorized mechanical or electronic devices.  Examples:  pracx-it (to wash clothes), pracx-tor (washing machine); mroz (frost), mroz-tor (freezer); pompa (pump), pompa-tor (motor pump); obraz (picture), obraz-tor (screen, monitor); mesxa-t (to mix), mesxa-tor (mixer); vibr-it (vibrate), vibr-itor (vibrator); pisa-t (write) pisa-tor (typewriter); let-it (to fly), let-itor (motorized flyer); kofe (coffee), kofe-tor (coffee machine);
-(i)cxka =
THING. Examples: sid-it (to sit), sid-icxka (a seat); zxva-t (chew), zxva-cxka (chewing gum).         TOP

-(i)lna = ROOM. The suffix -lna means a room used for a certain specific purpouse. So for example from the verb spat-it (to sleep) we get spat-ilna (bedroom, sleeping room); and from the verb eda-t (to eat) we get eda-lna (dining room). Or from the word vana (bathtub) we get the word vana-lna (bathroom); umiva-t (wash), umiva-lna (washroom), pracx-it (launder, wash clothes), pracx-ilna (laundry room), zabava-t (entertain), zabava-lna (living room). cxai (tea), cxai-lna (tea-room), kafe (coffee) kafe-lna (coffee room). igra (play), igra-lna (play room).
-(i)sxtie = PLACE, AREA. Urually refers to an external area used for a particular purpouse or activity. Examples: let (flight), let-isxtie (airport), igra (play), igra-sxtie (playground).
= COUNTRY, LAND. Bulgar (Bulgarian), Bulgar-zem (Bulgaria); Rus (Russian), Rus-zem (Russia); Beloruszem (Belorussia).

-(n)ia = REGION. This suffix can be used in two ways:
1) To describe a geographical region, such as a country: Bulgar, Bulgaria (Bulgaria), Bulgarian (Bulgarian); Rus, Rusia (Russia) Rusian (Russian); Belorus, Belorusia (Belorussia), Belorusian (Belorussian).
2) To describe an intellectual region a region of human knowledge or activity: Histor-ia, Ekonom-ia, Genet-ia...

LANGUAGE (noun, adjective, adverb)
-io = LANGUAGE. This ending -io signifies a language, and can remain the same in the noun, adjective or adverb form. Examples: Bulgar, Bulgario (Bulgarian language); Rus, Rusio (Russian language), German, Germanio (German language), Anglo, Angloio (English language), slov, Slovio (the word-language). Another longer way to say the same thing is this: Germanju jazika = German language = Germanio; Rusju jazika Russian languge = Rusio; Angloju jazika = English language = Angloio.

-(i)tel = OCCUPATION. (from a verb) Example: poucxi-t (teach), poucxi-tel (teacher).
-(n)ar =
TRADESMAN. Gender neutral. Examples: stol (table), stolar (carpenter); lecxit (cure, treat); lecxar (physician);
= PERSON. This gender-neutral ending , signifies a person in some way related to the root of the word. Examples: slep-ju (blind), slepnik (a blind person); rob = work, robnik = worker,
-(i)lnik = PASSIVE ROLE. This gender-neutral ending , signifies a person in some way, PASSIVELY,  related to the root of the word. Examples: amput-it (amputate), amput-ilnik (amputee);
-(e)nic, -(e)nica = these two endings are gender-specific and can replace the gender-neutral -nik.
-(n)ist = FOLLOWER. Example: komunizm (communism), komun-ist (communist).
-(n)an, -(n)ian =  MEMBER. Member of a group, of a nation, or of a national group. (Gender-free ending.) Examples: Slav-ian, Bulgar-ian.

= ON, BEGINNING. Beginning of an action. ("on").
ot- = OFF, ENDING, REMOVAL, SEPARATION. Ending of an action ("off"), or removal of something into the distance.
Examples: klucx (key), za-klucx-it (to lock), ot-klucx-it (unlock); viaza-t (to tie), za-viaza-t (to tie together), ot-viaza-t (to untie).
nacx- = START. Start of an action. Example: otkrit (open), nacx-otkrit (start opening).
= COMPLETION. This denotes activity which has been completed, which had finished in the past. Example: Ja delal lopata. (I made shovel); Ja zudelal lopata. (I have made shovel).
= COMPLETION / OUT OF. The prefix vi- usually signifies an action that has been completed. But it is a prefix that can take on several different meanings. More exact deffinition will be discussed later.   TOP

= DIMINUTIVE. Denotes something small or cute. Examples: dom (house), domcxe (little house); zxen (woman), zxencxe (little woman); postel (bed), postelcxe (little bed or infant's bed).
mal- = DIMINUTIVE. Denotes something small. Examples: dom (house), maldom (little house); grod (town), malgrod (village).

= CLOSENESS. The prefix  denotes something very close.
tam- = REMOTENESS. The prefix  denotes something distant, remote.
pri- = ATTACHMENT. Prefix pri- means to make something close, to attach something. For example viaza-t (to tie) and pri-viaza-t (tie onto something).
pere- / pre- = TRANS / "IN EXCESS OF". Examples: perevodit (translate); perebukvat (transliterate); pereidit (transit); Perekrasju mlodica. (Too beautiful girl.)
pro- = FOR SOMETHING. Examples: pro-okupacju (favoring occupation);
pro- = XXXXXXX. Examples:  .... .... ...;
raz- = SEPARATION. Same as dis-. Examples: razbalit (unwrap); razdelit (separate, partition);
= FOR SOMETHING. Weakly defined prefix, usually signifies an object used in some relationship with the root. Examples: ruk (hand), naruk (glove), nog (foot), nanog (sock);

= FEMALE FAMILY NAMES. The ending  can be added to family names to distinguish between a man and a woman.
= BELONG. The ending  signifies ownership, or a strong relationship between the subject and object.. Example: Petervoi automobil.
/ Peter's car. // Natasxavoi  cxai. / Natasha's tea.
-(v)ost =  QUALITY. Formation of a noun from an adjective. Equivalent to English -ness. Examples: dobr-ju (good), dobr-ost (goodness), vel-ju (big), velost (size), bistr-ju (fast), bistr-ost (speed).
= MOVEMENT. Political or philosophical movement. (fasxizm, kapitalizm, egzistizm ...)
-(..)stvo = COLLECTION of beings, organizations or things. Example: lud (human), ludstvo (mankind, humankind), zxen (woman), zxenstvo (woman-kind), drug (buddy), drugstvo (team); slov (word), slovstvo (word supply)..
-oicxa = MULTIPLE- (-ple, -uple, -uplet) i.e. multiple birth. Example: dva (two), dvaoicxa (twin); tri (three), trioicxa (triplet); cxtir (four), cxtiroicxa (quadruplet); piat (five), piatoicxa (quintuplet); sxes (six), sxesoicxa (sixtuplet).

= ORDINARY NUMBERS. Ordinary numbers are formed from cardinal numbers by adding -ju. Examples: tri (three), triju (third); dvades (twenty), dvadesju (twentieeth).
-lion = VERY LARGE NUMBERS. Very large numbers are formed from the internationally recognized terms (mega, giga, tera, peta, eksa, zeta, jota) and adding to them "-lion". Examples: megalion (million), gigalion (U.S. billion) teralion, petalion, eksalion, zetalion, jotalion.
-tink = FRACTION. Denotes a fraction. tri = 3, tritink = 1/3;   cxtir = 4, cxtirtink = 1/4; piat = 5, piattink = 1/5; des = 10, destink = 1/10; sto = 100, stotink = 1/100; tisicx = 1000, tisicxtink = 1/1000.
-tink = VERY SMALL NUMBERS. Very small numbers are formed from the internationally recognized terms (mikro, nano, piko, femto, ato, zepto, jokto) and adding to them "-tink". Examples: mikrotink, nanotink, joktotink.
More about numbers.

om- = UNIVERSAL prefix, undefined.
= semi-universal prefix, indicates close relationship of the derived word to the original word. Examples: dragju (dear = expensive), udragju (dear = beloved).
pu-, po-
= UNIVERSAL  prefixes. These are universal prefixes which are used to create new words from existing roots. These prefixes are used where the relationship between the root and the new word is less clear, more difficult to define. Example:
-(n)in, -(n)ina = UNIVERSAL. Universal undefined suffixes to denote something in someway related to the  root. Examples: pecx-it (bake), pecx-ina (oven), ...

om = UNIVERSAL  preposition. Can be used at all times, especially in cases where the correct preposition is difficult to determine. Somewhat similar to English "of", or to Esperanto "je". Example: "Nasx otec ktor es om nebes...", "mislim om ti",

-o- = CONNECTION. To connect together various words whenever their connection would cause difficulties in pronunciation, we can use -o- to join the words, prefixes or suffixes.

Other Slovio prefixes und Suffixes will be discussed in later versions. Your suggestions and definitions are welcome.

LI is the universal question word. A statement is changed to a question not by changing the word order, but simply by starting the sentence with "LI". (To turn any sentence into a question, simply add "LI" to the beginning of the sentence.)
Examples: On es mlodju.
/ He is young. // Li on es mlodju? / Is he young?
If a sentence contains a question word already, then we don't have to add "LI" to its beginning. Examples: Sxto es tasxto?
/ What is that? // Gde idisx? / Where are you going?  TOP

DAS is the universal word for imperatives. A statement can be changed to an order simply by starting the sentence with "DAS". A question can be changed to an order simply by replacing "LI" with "DAS".
Examples: Cxitasx knig.
/ You are reading a book. // Li cxitasx knig? / Are you reading a book? //  Das cxitasx knig! / Read a book!
The other way to form and imperative sentence is by using the imperative form of the verb:   Cxitaj knig! = Buj cxitat knig!
/ Read a  book!  If a sentence contains an imperative verb-form, then we don't have to add "DAS" to its beginning. To learn more about the imperative verb-forms visit the section "Verbs"

We can but we don't have to use articles. The universal definite article is "ta" (in English "the") as in these examples: ta zxen (the woman), ta pcxelis (the bees). Unlike English and unlike some other languages, in Slovio, there is no indefinite article. This is a  compromise between languages which have two articles, and those with none. The word "ta" is invariable, like English "the" (but unlike the corresponding words in Italian, German, French and Spanish - which have variable articles).

There is no (grammatical) gender in Slovio, consequently no need to learn wheather a word is masculine or feminine.   TOP

Open Slovio Project = you can participateFLEXIBLE GRAMMAR, ORTHOGRAPHY AND VOCABULARY.
Ther new feature of Slovio which has been added in the second half of 2007 is flexible grammar, orthography and vocabulary. This means that Slovio enables users to use - apart from the standard - also several alternate endings or spelling systems in order to achieve maximum flexibility and to allow and encourage the further development and improvement of the language. Furthermore Slovio enables users to use other words than those in the standard Slovio dictionary, since it contains some words on which there is not a 100% agreement. This will make it possible to determine, with time, the words which need to be changed or added to the Slovio dictionary. Just like any natural language, Slovio is an open-ended project, an open language, subject to changes and external influences.

For example to indicate object or direction Slovio can use the following endings for singular nouns: "-(u)f, -(u)g or -(u)m" and for plural nouns: "-(i)fs, -(i)ms" or "-(u)mis".  Other feature of Slovio's flexibility is the possibility to replace the standard adjective and adverb endings of "-ju" and "-uo" with "-sk".

Furthermore, since there is some opposition to the Slovio use of "-(i)s" for the formation of plural, we suggest that users, if they prefer, experimentally use just the letter "-i" to form the plural, independent of whether the noun ends with a wovel or consonant. The demand that Slovio truncates all nouns, in order for all nouns to end with a consonant, seems, at least for now, premature. It may happen in the future but for now we feel it would cause more problems than it solves. While there are some truncated words in Slovio dictionary, only those words whose truncation causes no confusion have been shortened.
Letters - Bukvas
While using some of the above non-standard and experimental endings, user should be careful to make sure that the usage does not create any kind of misunderstanding. The use of the standard grammatical endings according to our knowledge does not create such conflicts nor confusion. Concerning Slovio spelling and orthography it is possible to replace "x" with an apostrophe. Once more, we warn users that on diffeerent keyboards there are several similar-looking 'apostrophes', which have different ASCII codes and that the end result may look on different computers very different, even illegible.

ADVERBS: are formed by adding -jumo to the root (differnet from Slovio)
examples: dobrjumo (well), bistrjumo (quickly)
COMPARATIVES and superlatives (adjectives and adverbs):
više (more), naiviše (the most), menše (less) naimenše (the least)
examples: više dobrju (better), menše bistrjumo (less quickly)
PLURAL: the plural formation by adding -i to the root.
on delal (he worked)
ona delala (she worked)
ono delalo (it worked)
oni delali (they worked)
moi  -   moia
tvoi  -  tvoia
This is especially helpful in songs and poetry


Click here  to get an overview of the most important words and pronouns.

In order to have a simple non-confusing spelling and at the same time spelling which is understandable to the largest number of people, Slovio has these simple spelling rules concerning the letters "J" and "I": We don't use the letter "J" in the middle of any Slovio words (roots); in the middle of Slovio words (roots) we use only the letter "I" with these exceptions:
1) when it is necessary to have a "j" sound at the beginning of a word. Examples: "jaico, jad, jazik..."
2) in a few well defined suffixes. Examples: "-ju, -just, -jme, -jte ...."
3) otherwise we use letter "i".
Pronunciation: the recommended (but not mandatory) pronunciation of Slovio words is to pronounce all vowel combinations (a, e, i, o, u, combinations such as: ai, oi, io, uo ...) as one-syllabic diphthongs rather than as two distinctive syllables.
Soft / hard consonants: Slovio is indifferent to soft/hard consonants common in most Slavic and in many other languages. The reccommended (but not compulsory) pronunciation is hard, but soft pronunciation of  "N, D, T, L" is also acceptable.
Accent: the recommended (but not compulsory) accent is on the penultimate (the one before last) syllable. This is similar to Polish, Esperanto and to many other languages.
VARIATIONS: Today Slovio is one of the most widely understood languages of the World. Since Slovio can serve as the language of communicaiton with hundreds of millions of people, variations in pronunciation are tolerated and possible, and most of the time they will cause no difficulties in communication. In this aspect Slovio is tolerant of various accents and pronunciations because the language is built in such a way that this should cause no problems with mutual understanding. So even if you find it easier to pronounce all vowels separately (each as a separate syllable, the way it is in Esperanto), it shouldn't create any problems in communication. Perhaps with time there will be a mandatory way to pronounce Slovio words, but at least for now we leave it to the free and natural development of the language.

TEXTS. Sample Slovio texts.



This is is the latest version of Slovio released in the internet. Slovio is being constantly developed, improved and perfected. Your cooperation and suggestions are welcome. Please contact us with your constructive suggestions and criticizm at: info@slovio.com. Or join our discussion group.

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