home.gif (928 bytes)

fl-ru.gif (852 bytes)  flag-de.gif (852 bytes)  flag-fr.gif (882 bytes)  Espanol  Slovensky

search2.gif (1191 bytes)   blitz60.gif (3130 bytes)   casino88.gif (1956 bytes)


Nouns and Word Order
Pre- and Suffixes
Verbs, general
IDIT (to go)
BIT (to be)
MOZX (can)
HCE (want)
DOLZX (have to)

slovio3.GIF (1543 bytes) BASIC GRAMMAR:
The vocabulary of Slovio is based on that of the largest European language group, and includes many internationally known words from Latin, Greek, English, French, German, Spanish etc. Because Slovio is based mainly on the mutually intelligible Slavic languages, as soon as one learns Slovio it should be possible to communicate with over 400 million people around the world, and especially in countries where communication in other languages is very difficult. Such countries as: Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia, Slovenia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Moldavia, etc. The flexibility and the richness of the Slavic languages lies in their ability to form new words with prefixes and sufixes. This ability of the Slavic languages had been copied by Esperanto and by most other planned languages. Naturally, Slovio has this ability too.

Words of particular types are in most cases indicated by their endings (suffixes), and this makes it easy to see the structure of sentences. The root of each word is never varied. Most words have special endings, other words (nouns, some verb forms, prepositions, conjunctions and some adverbs) do not have any special suffixes.

We thank all visitors for their constructive suggestions. info@slovio.com

Explanation: the vowels or consonants in parentheses are optional and are used only to facilitate pronunciation. Their use (or not use) depends on the root to which they are attached. Generally, the optional vowels/consonants are used in such a way so we wouldn't have two vowels or two consonants following each other. Example: if the root ends with a consonant, then a consonant at the beginning of a suffix can be omitted; if the root ends with a vowel, then a vowel at the beginning of a suffix can be omitted. The optional vowel and consonant most frequently used are:  "i", "e" and "n".

Nouns: don't have any special endings, don't have any inclinations, have always the same form. Exceptions: singular-plural, and subject-object.
-(i)s.= PLURAL. Plural nouns ending in a vowel are formed by adding -s. Plural nouns ending in a consonant are formed by adding -is. Examples: okno (window), oknos (windows); dom (house), domis (houses). (Only nouns have a plural form. Adjectives don't have a any. Adjectives don't change form.)
Word order: The adjective can be before or after the noun, but unlike in English, it has to have the adjective ending -ya. "Dobrya mlodic". or "Mlodic dobrya."
Subject-Object: Normally the subject comes before the object. If we want to reverse the order we must denote the subject with suffix "-(u)f" which is added to the subject in cases where it is necessary to make clear which noun is the subject. "Mlodic lubil mlodica." (Boy loved a girl). Or:  "Mlodicaf lubil mlodic." Both sentences have the same meaning only the subject/object order are reversed. As shown here, to make the meaning clear, we use the ending -(u)f. In plural, the ending -(u)f becomes -(i)fs. If the word order is "normal" (subject before object) then no changes, no suffixes are necessary. If an subject (or object) is preceded by a preposition, then we don't have to change the ending of the word, regardless of its posision in the sentence. In fact after preposition the subject must not change its ending, regardless of its location in the sentence. Exception: when we want to indicate direction.
Direction: The endings -(u)f, -(i)fs described above are also used to indicate direction. Examle: Peter es vo sxkola. (Peter is in school.), Peter idet vo sxkolaf. (Peter is going to school.) The direction-ending is added to the nouns regardless of the noun's position in a sentence.
-(o)va = FEMALE FAMILY NAMES. The ending  is added to family names to distinguish between a man and a woman.  TOP

-ya or -(e)skya  = ADJECTIVES. These two forms are equal and have the same meaning. It is up to the user to decide which form he/she prefers to use and when. Examples: dobrya = good; velya = big;  silaya = strong. As in English, adjectives do not change their form. They may be placed either before (as is usual in English) or after (as is usual in Spanish) the noun which they qualify. For example, zelonya trava (green grass) or trava zelonya, velya dom (big house) or dom velya. Adjectives don't have a plural form.
COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES: Comparatives and superlatives are made using the words plus, minus, maksim and minim. For example: plus velya = bigger, and minus velya = less big, maksim velya = the biggest, minim razumya = the least wise, mlodya = young, plus mlodya = yonger, maksim mlodya = the youngest. Opposites are formed with preposition bez-: dobrya = good, bezdobrya = bad, opasya = dangerous, bezopasya = safe, opasnost = danger, bezopasnost = safety, opasuo = dangerously, bezopasuo = safely.
-voi = BELONG. The ending  signifies ownership, or a strong relationship between the adjective and the noun.. Example: Petervoi automobil. / Peter's car. // Natasxavoi  cxai. / Natasha's tea.
-(n)ost =  QUALITY. Formation of a noun from an adjective. Equivalent to English -ness. Examples: dobr-ya (good), dobr-ost (goodness), vel-ya (big), velnost (size), bistr-ya (fast), bistr-ost (speed). TOP

-uo = ADVERBS. Adverbs are formed by adding -uo: dobruo = well; bistruo = quickly.  TOP

The verb roots can have various endings; they often (but not always) end with a vowel. The neutral is formed by adding -(i)t to the root. This is the rule with roots ending with wovels a, e, i, u; in case of root ending with "o" use "-vit" described below. The neutral form is the basic form, from this form are derived all the other forms, simply by replacing the "t" with the other alternate endings. The future, present, the past and the conditional tenses can be formed with the use of help words: BU (will do, will be), ES (does, is), BIL (did, has done, was), BIBIL (would have done, would have been), or by the replacement of the -t of the neutral form with -b (future), -l (past), -lbi (conditional).  The imperative form is created by replacing the -t  with   -y.  In the present tense we can either use the neutral form or replace it with various person-specific endings. More detailed discussion elsewhere. All the verbs follow the example of IDIT (to go). Exceptions are only these verbs:  BIT (to be), MOZX (can), HCE (want), DOLZX (have to).
Why are there up to 3 different ways one can use the verbs? This is to give the language more flexibility and the ability to absorb and use any words from any language without change. For example if we have an english verb "to extrapolate" and don't know how to translate it, we could use it in Slovio as: "ya bu extrapolate, ya es extrapolate, ya bil extrapolate, etc." Let's not forget that in other languages there are many more verb forms. And in such planed languages as Esperanto or Ido we cannot use unaltered foreign verbs; first we have to alter them and add to them appropriate suffixes, and only then we can use them.
-(i)vit = ALTERNATE VERB FORMATION (verb from noun). In some cases of verb formation from a noun to make the meaning clearer we add -(i)vit. Example: cxudo (wonder), cxudo-vit (admire, admire with awe); milo (soap), milo-vit (to soap). As seen here if the root ends with "o" then usual verb formation is by adding after the "o" ending "-vit". All the rules described above apply in the same way.
-nya = PASSIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Replace the -t of the neutral form with -nya. Examples:  igrat (to play), igranya (being played)
-cya = ACTIVE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Replace the -t of the neutral form with -cya. Examples:   igrat (to play), igracya (playing)
-va- = DURATION, REPETITION. (In the past as English "used to"). To denote an activity of long duration or one that repeats itself we insert -va- before the -t of the neutral form. Examples:  ya cxudovil (I wondered), ya cxudovival (I used to wonder).
-nie = ACTION. (Replace the -t of the neutral from with -nie). The suffix -nie means, activity, action. Examples: vidit (to see), vidinie (seeing, vision). This is how we can derive nouns from verbs.  TOP

Other Prefixes and Suffixes:

The words as such have no gender. They are all gender-neutral. Also the majority of words denoting living things, animals, plants etc are sex-neutral. If we want to be specific that a certain living thing is of a male sex or of a female sex, or that it is a young offspring we use the endings: -ic (male), -ica (female), -incxa (young, offspring).
-(n)ic  = MALE.
-(n)incxa = OFFSPRING, YOUNG.
Examples: kot (cat, a general gender-free term), kot-ic (tom-cat), kot-ica (female cat), kot-incxa (kitten); lud (human, person), lud-ic (man), lud-ica (woman), lud-incxa (child), lud-is (people).  TOP

bez- = OPPOSITE or the lack of a quality. Denotes the direct opposite. Examples: dobrya (good), bezdobrya (bad).
= THE-MOST. Example: Naikrasya drugica. (The most beautiful girl.)
= VERY. Example: Prekrasyai drugica. (Very beautiful girl.)
pra- = REMOTE. (English: grand-grand-...) Denotes something very old (or very young) or a distant ancestor, distant age, distant descendant. Examples: otec (father), pra-otec (distant grandfather);
= BAD; defect, mean. (English mis-). Examples: upotrebit (use), zlo-upotrebit (misuse).
vel- = BIG. Examples. grad (town), vel-grad (city).
= SMALL. Examples: grad (town), mal-grad (village).
pol- = HALF. Semi, demi, mid-. Examples: pol-den (noon), pol-nocx (midnight).
= ABOVE, SUPERIOR. Examples:
pod- = VICE, UNDER. Denotes deputy, vice or a lower function. Examples: prezident (president), pod-prezident (vice president). It can also denote describe something that is lower. For example: .......
proti- = ANTI. Opposite or opposition to something else. Examples:
mnog- = MULTI-.  Examples: cvet (color), mnog-cvet-ya (multicolored), narod (nation), mnog-narod-ya (multi-naitonal).
so- = WITH, TOGETHER. (similar to English co-). Examples: robotat (work), so-robotat (cooperate).   TOP

-(i)vo = MATERIAL. Example: topl-ya (warm), topl-it (to heat), topl-ivo (heating fuel), plat-it (to pay), plat-ivo (currency), pal-it (to burn), pal-ivo (fuel).
= MATERIAL. To denote a thing originating from certain material. Example: drev (tree), drev-in (wood), goviad (cattle), goviad-in (beef), svin (swine, pig), svin-in (pork).
-(n)ina = UNIVERSAL. A universal undefined suffix to denote something in someway related to the  root. Examples: pecx-it (bake), pecx-ina (oven), ...
-lka = THING (from verb).  Simply replace the -t of the neutral verb form with -lka. Examples: igrat (to play), igralka (toy).
= THING (usu from verb). Simply replace the -t of the neutral verb form with -lo. The suffix -lo means a thing used (passively) for a specific purpose. Examples: umivat (to wash), umivalo (sink).
-(i)dlo = TOOL (usu from verb).  The suffix -(i)dlo means a tool used (actively) for a specific purpose. Examples: let-it (to fly), let-idlo (airplane).
-k, -(n)ak
, -(n)ek, -(n)ok, -(n)ov  = THING .  Examples:  
= THING.  Examples: pit (to drink) na-pi-tok (a drink).
-(e)cxka = THING. Examples: side-t (to sit), side-cxka (a seat).
-(n)ar = COLLECTION OF THINGS. (See also "-stvo"). Examples:    TOP

-(i)tel = OCCUPATION. (from a verb) Example: ucxi-t (teach), ucxi-tel (teacher).
= PERSON. Gender neutral.
, -(i)lnic,-(i)lnica,   = DOER. (neutral, male, female) The ending , signifies a person who is doing something...  rob = work, robilnik = worker,
= PERSON. The ending , signifies a person in some way related to the root of the word. Examples: slep-ya (blind), slepnik (a blind person)
rob = work, robnik = worker,
-(n)ist = FOLLOWER. Example: komunizm (communism), komun-ist (communist).
-(n)an, -(n)ian =  MEMBER. Member of a group, of a nation, or of a national group.   TOP

-(i)lna = ROOM. The suffix -lna means a room used for a certain specific purpouse. So for example from the verb spa-t (to sleep) we get spa-lna (bedroom, sleeping room); and from the verb eda-t (to eat) we get eda-lna (dining room). Or from the word vana (bathtub) we get the word vana-lna (bathroom); umiva-t (wash), umiva-lna (washroom), zabava-t (entertain), zabava-lna (living room). cxai (tea), cxai-lna (tea-room), kafe (coffee) kafe-lna (coffee room). igra (play), igra-lna (play room).
-(n)isko = PLACE. Examples: let (flight), let-nisko (airport), igra (play), igra-nisko (playfield).
= COUNTRY. Bulgar (Bulgarian), Bulgar-ia (Bulgaria).
-(i)stan = COUNTRY. Bulgar (Bulgarian), Bulgar-istan (Bulgaria).

= BEGINNING. Beginning of an action. ("on").
ot- = ENDING, REMOVAL. Ending of an action ("off"), or removal of something into the distance.
Examples: klucx (key), za-klucx-it (to lock), ot-klucx-it (unlock); viaza-t (to tie), za-viaza-t (to tie together), ot-viaza-t (to untie).
vi- = COMPLETION / OUT OF. The prefix vi- usually signifies an action that has been completed. But it is a prefix that can take on several different meanings. More exact deffinition will be discussed later.   TOP

= CLOSENESS. The prefix  denotes something very close.
tam- = REMOTENESS. The prefix  denotes something distant, remote.
pri- = ATTACHMENT. Prefix pri- means to make something close, to attach something. For examle viaza-t (to tie) and pri-viaza-t (tie onto something).
raz- = SEPARATION. Same as dis-. Examples: delat (do, make), raz-delat (to separate, divide).
= INTER-. Examples: mezxunarodya (international).
pro- = XXXXXXX. Examples:               TOP

= MOVEMENT. Political or philosophical movement. (fasxizm, kapitalizm...)
-ie = ACTIVITY.  Similar to english suffix "-ment". Examples: razv-it (to develop), razv-it-ie (development),
= COLLECTION OF beings, organizations or things. (See also "-(n)ar"). Example: lud (human), ludstvo (mankind, humankind), zxen (woman), zxenstvo (woman-kind), drug (buddy), drugstvo (team).
=   .............   Examples: sluzx-it (to serve), sluzx-ba (service).
-(o)m = DURING, WITHIN. Examples: utro (morning), utro-m (in the morning), krug (circle), krug-om (around, in the vicinity).

po- = UNIVERSAL  prefix. This is a universal prefix which is used to create new words from existing roots. This is used in cases where the relationship between the root and the new word is less clear, more difficult to define. Example: krug (circle), pokrug (around), utro (morning), poutro (in the morning), vecxer (evening), povecxer (in the evening), ruka (arm), poruka (glove), noga (leg), ponoga (sock).
u-, pu-
= other universal  prefixes.

Other Slavic prefixes und Suffixes will be discussed in a later version. Your suggestions and definitions are welcome.

LI is the universal question word. A statement is changed to a question not by changing the word order, but simply by starting the sentence with "LI". (To turn any sentence into a question, simply add "LI" to the beginning of the sentence.)
Examples: On es mlodya. / He is young. // Li on es mlodya? / Is he young?
If a sentence contains a question word already, then we don't have to add "LI" to its beginning. Examples: Sxto es tasxto? / What is that? // Gde ti ide? / Where are you going?  TOP

The definite article (in English "the") is "ta" as in ta zxen (the woman), and ta pcxelas (the bees). Unlike English and some other languages in Slovio there is no indefinite article. This is a  compromise between languages which have two articles, and those with none. The word "ta" is invariable, like English "the" (but unlike the corresponding words in Italian, German, French and Spanish - which have variable articles). There is also no (grammatical) gender in Slovio, consequently no need to learn wheather a word is masculine or feminine.   TOP


Click here  to get an overview of the most important words and pronouns.


punkt.gif (863 bytes)HOME      TOP




Mark Hucko,